P.8: "In addition to the categories S0 to S5 and M1 to M3 defined above, the following categories are prohibited In-Competition"
The 'act' is allowed but a minute negligible trace will lead to a 'positive' test in-competition. The reason? A lack of thresholds for many substances on the List.
Take alcohol, which is banned in-competition in a few sports, see p.10. It is accompanied by a threshold. Have a few bears the day before a match? No problem, although some residue is undoubtedly present in the sample.
Referring to this article:
"The 32-year-old said he received dexamethasone during stem cell treatment for a thigh injury in July but had passed an out-of-competition test before the world championships, where he lost in the final to China's Chen Long."
"...had passed an out-of-competition test..."
Well, the presence of the substance should not be reported at that particular instance, because it is allowed. A couple days later, an even smaller amount leads to a 'positive' test... Labs report what they are asked to deliver the proof of doping. They are not asked to compare with a threshold.
I guess the lab could have warned him...
More in general, about one in two cases has nothing to do with cheating, see this article for example.
"In addition, according to Athlete Ombudsman for the US Olympic Committee John Ruger at the Tackling Doping in Sport summit in the UK earlier this month, between 40-60 per cent of positive test doping results were inadvertent (non-deliberate) cases."
* Klaas Faber is an independent (anti-)doping expert and former forensic scientist.
** This is the personal opinion of the writer and does necessarily represent the views of Malay Mail Online.